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Bentonville

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March 19-21, 1865

The Battle of Bentonville

Following his March to the Sea, Union Major General William T. Sherman drove northward into the Carolinas, splitting his force into two parts. Major General Henry W. Slocum commanded the left wing, while Major General Oliver O. Howard commanded the right. The plan was to march through the Carolinas, destroying railroads and disrupting supply lines, before joining Ulysses S. Grant’s army near Richmond. On March 19th, as the respective wings approached Goldsboro, North Carolina, Slocum’s wing encountered the entrenched Confederates of Joseph E. Johnston, who had concentrated at Bentonville with the hope of slowing the Union advance.

Convinced that he faced only a small Confederate cavalry force, Slocum launched a probing attack, which was quickly driven back. In the late afternoon, the Confederate trap was sprung, and a division of rebel infantry under Major General Robert Hoke attacked, driving back Slocum’s men and overrunning the Union XIV Corps field hospital. However, James D. Morgan’s Union division held out against the onslaught, and eventually Union reinforcements arrived to support the counterattack. The Confederates reached their high water mark at the Morris Farm, where Union forces formed a defensive line. After several Confederate attacks failed to dislodge the Union defenders, the weary rebels pulled back to their original lines. Nightfall brought the first day’s fighting to a close in a tactical draw.

The next day, the right wing of the Union Army arrived to reinforce Slocum, which put the Confederates at a huge numerical disadvantage. Sherman expected Johnston to retreat and was inclined to let him do so. However, while Johnston did begin evacuating his wounded, he refused to give up his tenuous position, guarding his only route of escape across Mill Creek. His only hope for success in the face of such an overwhelming numerical disadvantage was to entice Sherman into attacking his entrenched position, something Sherman was unlikely to do. A few sporadic skirmishes occurred throughout the day on March 20th, but no major action ensued.

On the 21st, Johnston remained in position and the previous day’s skirmishing resumed. Under a heavy rainfall, Union Major General Joseph A. Mower led a “little reconnaissance” toward the Mill Creek Bridge. When Mower discovered the weakness of the Confederate left flank, that little reconnaissance became a full-scale attack against the small force holding the bridge. A Confederate counterattack, combined with Sherman’s order for Mower to withdraw, ended the advance, allowing Johnston’s army to retain control of their only means of supply and retreat. Had the Federals managed to gain control of this bridge, they might have had the chance to end the campaign earlier or even capture Johnston’s army entirely.

Instead, the Confederates pulled back across the bridge on the night of the 21st, effectively ending the battle. Union forces pursued them at first light but were halted by a severe skirmish at Hannah’s Creek. After regrouping at Goldsboro, Sherman pursued Johnston’s army toward Raleigh. On April 18, Johnston signed an armistice with Sherman at the Bennett House, and on April 26, formally surrendered his army.