1. The Union army commander at the Battle of Sabine Pass (Sep. 8, 1863) was Maj. Gen. William B. Franklin. As the "Left Grand Division" commander, his lackluster performance at this major 1862 eastern theater battle led to his being relieved and redeployed.
a. Cold Harbor
e. Second Manassas
Answer: C. Fredericksburg. Franklin was charged by Ambrose Burnside to attack Stonewall Jackson's line south of the town of Fredericksburg. Franklin, unduly concerned over his exposed flank, put forward only a fraction of his Left Grand Division forces in his attack on December 13, 1862 Franklin's timidity foiled Burnside's overall battle plan and led to the terrible Union debacle that day.
CWPT has saved more than 208 acres of the Fredericksburg battlefield. To see more on this key battle please view our animated map of the Battle of Fredericksburg: www.civilwar.org/fredericksburgmap
2. The Battle of Spring Hill (Nov. 29, 1864) is best known as the place where General Hood's Confederates failed to stop and destroy Maj. Gen. John Schofield's retreating Union command. On the following day, Hood attacked Schofield's dug in troops and was repulsed with heavy casualties. What was the name of that subsequent battle?
b. Kennesaw Mountain
d. Stones River
Answer: E. Franklin. Hood's Army of Tennessee greatly outnumbered the two Union corps under John Schofield. At Spring Hill, Hood's army had caught up with Schofield's retreating force and was well positioned to have dealt this smaller foe a devastating blow. But as nightfall came to the Spring Hill battlefield, Hood's forces, confused by many conflicting orders, would somehow fail to prevent Schofield's troops from continuing their north-bound retreat to Franklin, Tennessee.
Eager to stop Schofield from reaching George Thomas's lines at Nashville, Hood decided upon a precipitous attack on the Union entrenchments just outside of Franklin on November 30, 1864 The late afternoon assault led to one of the great disasters of the Civil War. Hood's veteran divisions would suffer nearly 6,000 casualties in just under 4 hours. How might events have changed if Hood had managed to cut Schofield off at Spring Hill?
CWPT has saved 110 acres of the Spring Hill battlefield in Tennessee.
3. Many have heralded Lew Wallace, commander of the Union forces at the Battle of Monocacy, as the savior of Washington DC. In addition to being a Civil War general, Wallace is maybe best known as the author of what famous book:
b. The Chronicles of Narnia
c. To Have and Have Not
d. Huckleberry Finn
e. Alice in Wonderland
Answer: a. Ben-Hur. Despite being greatly outnumbered by Jubal Early's forces moving on Washington, Lew Wallace was able to patch together a valiant defense at Monocacy that served to slow the momentum of the Confederate attackers. Many believe that this delay was crucial to the survival of Washington DC in 1864 as it gave the Union just enough time to rush reinforcements into the city defenses.
After the war Wallace would go on to be the Governor of the New Mexico Territory and the U.S. Minister to the Ottoman Empire. In 1880 he wrote Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ which became one of the best selling American novels of the 19th century. Some believe that Ben Hur was loosely based on Wallace's experiences at the Battle of Shiloh and the damage that it did to his reputation.
CWPT has worked to preserve 440 acres of the Monocacy battlefield in Maryland.
4. During the Battle of New Market Heights (Sep. 29-30, 1864) soldiers from the United States Colored Troops played a conspicuous part in this battle. Which of the following comments is not true with regard to their efforts at New Market Heights?:
a. 14 Medal of Honors were awarded to USCT soldiers for their actions in the battle
b. Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler was considered to be an early proponent of incorporating freed slaves into the Union Army
c. Sergeant Major Christian Fleetwood, who would win the Medal of Honor, was also presented with a battlefield promotion to lieutenant
d. After the first frontal assault failed, the second assault led by USCT troops was able to take the stout Confederate line at New Market Heights
e. Before the initial attack, Maj. Gen. Butler exhorted the USCT troops to charge the enemy with "Remember Fort Pillow" on their lips
Answer: C. Despite the gallant actions and proven combat value of the USCT troops at New Market Heights and elsewhere, the United States Federal Government refused to allow any African-American troops to become commissioned officers during the Civil War.
Only after the war would Christian Fleetwood become an officer - this time as Major and commanding officer of the Sixth Battalion of D.C. National Guards in 1887.
5. The Battle of Port Gibson (May 1, 1863) is best known as:
a. U.S. Grant's only major defeat of the Vicksburg campaign
b. An important feint that allowed Grant to successfully attack Vicksburg later that day
c. The opening land battle of Grant's successful campaign, begun below Vicksburg
d. The battle where William T. Sherman was seriously wounded
e. A battle for the last Confederate stronghold along the Mississippi river
Answer: C. The Battle of Port Gibson was the opening land battle of U.S. Grant's efforts to capture Vicksburg by moving below the city and then approaching the fortified town from the east. After being stymied north of Vicksburg, this bold move below the town led to Grant's victory at Vicksburg on July 4, 1863.
CWPT has saved land at many of the key battles of this 1863 campaign: Raymond (23 acres) and Champion Hill (406 acres)
6. The Battle of South Mountain (Sep 14, 1862) saw Union forces seeking to attack and overcome Confederate forces that were blocking several key mountain passes. What was the chief Confederate aim at South Mountain?
a. To fix Union attention while Stonewall Jackson conducted a devastating flank attack
b. To slow the advance of surging Union forces so that Lee would have more time to consolidate his far-flung army in Maryland.
c. To allow the Army of Northern Virginia to make a successful crossing of the Potomac River
d. To prevent the encirclement of Confederate forces holding Harpers Ferry
e. To give the Confederate forces enough time to entrench their positions on North Mountain
Answer. B. With Lee's "Lost Order 191" in hand, the usually plodding George McClellan quickly moved his Army of the Potomac to cut off Robert E. Lee's forces north of the Potomac in September 1862 With Jackson's forces off at Harper's Ferry, the rest of Lee's Army of the Northern Virginia were in danger of having to fight the entire Army of the Potomac. At South Mountain, Lee directed his forces to hold several key passes - Crampton's, Fox's, and Turner Gaps - in an effort to give himself time to reunite his command. Despite South Mountain being a clear-cut Union victory, the fighting in South Mountain did give Lee some much needed time to bring most of his forces together for the Battle of Antietam on September 17, 1862
CWPT has saved 220 acres at South Mountain and 385 acres of the Antietam battlefield.
7. On May 2, 1863 Stonewall Jackson was mortally wounded in a friendly fire situation at the Battle of Chancellorsville. Almost one year later, and 4 miles from where Jackson was wounded, this prominent Confederate general was also gravely wounded by friendly fire in the dense thickets of the Wilderness battlefield.
a. James Longstreet
b. John Bell Hood
c. Joseph Johnston
d. JEB Stuart
e. Albert Sydney Johnston
Answer. a. James Longstreet. While directing a powerful flanking attack up the Orange Plank Road at the Battle of the Wilderness on May 6, 1864, "Old Pete" was accidently shot by some of his own jittery troops who were fighting through the deep thickets of this Virginia battlefield.
The bullet passed through his shoulder and tore a severe gash in his neck. But unlike his fellow corps commander, Stonewall Jackson, these wounds would not be mortal. Longstreet would return to the Army of Northern Virginia in October 1864.
8. On the morning of Oct 19, 1864, Confederate forces under Lt. Gen. Jubal Early unleashed a powerful surprise attack on Union forces at the Battle of Cedar Creek. With defeat looming, this famous Union cavalry chieftain raced to the battlefield and led a successful counterattack that severely damaged Early's army.
a. George Custer
b. Phil Sheridan
c. George Stoneman
d. John Buford
e. James Wilson
Answer: B. Phil Sheridan. "Little Phil" - commander of the Union Army of the Shenandoah - was away "down the Valley" at Winchester when he received word of Jubal Early's successful surprise attack on the morning of October 19, 1864 Sheridan would quickly mount his horse and gallop to the scene of the battle. Rallying his beleaguered forces, Sheridan then proceeded to attack Early's forces who were aggressively foraging the Union positions looking for much needed provisions. The subsequent assault led to a rout of the Confederates - the last time they would field an army of any significance in the Shenandoah Valley.
CWPT has worked to save more than 460 acres of the Cedar Creek battlefield.
9. Forts Morgan and Gaines were key parts of the Confederate defense of Mobile Bay. Which of the following statements is true with regard to Fort Gaines during the Battle of Mobile Bay (Aug 2-23, 1864):
a. Fort Gaines, the most formidable of the forts guarding Mobile, surrendered to Union forces only at the end of the Civil War
b. Cannon fire from Fort Gaines disabled both the USS Metacomet and USS Tecumseh during the battle
c. Union engineers, after taking control of Fort Gaines, remarked that this fort, due to its unusual strength, could have withstood a Union attack indefinitely
d. Confederate sailors beached the damaged CSS Tennessee near the fort and scrambled inside
e. Encircled on both land and sea, Col. Charles Anderson would surrender the fort, despite having explicit orders to continue the fight
Answer. E. Fort Gaines, located on Dauphin Island, was the fort designed to protect the western edge of Mobile Bay. On August 5, 1864 Admiral David Farragut would boldly charge past Fort Morgan and take the outer harbor. Once in command of Mobile Bay, Farragut, in conjunction with Maj. Gen. Gordon Granger, whose forces were already laying siege to Fort Gaines on Dauphin Island, were able to convince Col. Charles Anderson to surrender his encircled fort.
After Union engineers had a chance to inspect Fort Gaines, it was exclaimed that the fort "was utterly weak and inefficient against our attack (land and naval), which would have taken all its fronts in front, enfilade, and reverse."
10. On the morning of July 1, 1863, the First Day of the Battle of Gettysburg, Union cavalry under the command of Brig. Gen. John Buford, atop McPherson's Ridge, were able to greatly slow the advance of Confederate infantry forces approaching the town of Gettysburg. Who was the commander of the Confederate division from A.P. Hill's Third Corps that initially struck Buford's position?
a. Jubal Early
b. Lafayette McLaws
c. John Bell Hood
d. Henry Heth
e. Isaac Trimble
Answer: D. Henry Heth. Maj. Gen. Henry Heth's division of Hill's Third Corps encountered Brig. Gen. John Buford's dismounted troopers astride the Chambersburg Pike outside of the town of Gettysburg. Buford's outnumbered cavalrymen would do much to slow the Confederate advance and allow critical Union reinforcements to secure important defensive positions before the great battle would continue in earnest.
CWPT has preserved more than 576 acres of the Gettysburg battlefield.
11. During 2008, the CWPT worked to save historic battlefield land at all of these sites except this one:
a. Morris Island, SC
b. Bentonville, NC
c. Shiloh, TN
d. Brandy Station, VA
e. Trevilian Station, VA
f. Parkers Cross Roads, TN
g. Chickamauga, GA
h. Reams Station, VA
Answer. G. Chickmauga, Ga. In 2008 the Civil War Preservation Trust worked to preserve battlefield ground at Shiloh, Fort Donelson, Bentonville, Brandy Station, Trevilian Station, Reams Station, Parkers Cross Roads, and Morris Island, SC.
Join us as we seek to save even more of our historic battlefields in 2009