Primary Sources:

"General Banks Takes Port Hudson." The Civil War Archive. Ed. Henry Steele Commager and Erik Bruun. New York: Black Dog and Leventhal Publishers, 2000. 454-55. Print.

Gorgas, Josiah. "The Civil War Diary of General Josiah Gorgas." Civil War Artillery. Ed. Jack W. Melton, Jr. and Lawrence E. Pawl. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2013. <>.

Grant, Ulysses S. Personal Memoirs of Ulysses S. Grant. 2005 ed. New York: Barnes and Noble Books, 2005. Print.

Lincoln, Abraham. "The Father of Waters Again Goes Unvexed to the Sea." Letter to James C. Conkling. 26 Aug. 1863. MS. The Civil War Archive.

         Loughborough, Mrs. James M., My Cave Life in Vicksburg. Little Rock: Kellogg Print Co., 1882

“Onward to Vicksburg.” Edgar L. Erickson, ed., “With Grant at Vicksburg- From the Civil War Diary of Captain Charles E. Wilcox,” Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, XXX (January 1938), pp. 463-497.

Pemberton, John Clifford. "John C. Pemberton Papers 1863-1876." N.d. MS. The Southern Historical Collection. Louis Round Wilson Special Collections Lib. at University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Folders 3-4.

"A Photographic Tour of Civil War Vicksburg." Vicksburg's Old Court House Museum. Vicksburg and Warren County Historical Society, n.d. Web. 6 Feb. 2013. < index.htm>.

"Three Days Later From Europe: How the News of the Great Union Successes at Gettysburgh and Vicksburgh was Received." The New York Times 3 Aug. 1863: 1. Print.

Secondary Sources:

The Civil War. By Ken Burns, Ric Burns, Geoffrey C. Ward. Narr. David McCullough. Prod. Ken Burns, Ric Burns, Florentine Films, and WETA-TV. 1990. PBS. DVD.

        The Civil War. Elektra Entertainment, a division of Warner Communications Inc., 1990. CD.

        Foote, Shelby. The Civil War. New York: Random House, Inc., 1958. Print.

Gallagher, Gary W., Joseph T. Glatthaar, Archer Jones, James M. McPherson, and Reid Mitchell. et al. Why the Confederacy Lost. Ed. Gabor S. Boritt. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. Print.

        Gibson, Jim. Songs of the Civil War. Hickory Cove Music, 2001. CD.

Groom, Winston. Vicksburg 1863. New York: Vintage Civil War Library Random House, 2009. Print.

          Kavanaugh, Tim. Vicksburg National Military Park Ranger. Personal interview. 19 Nov. 2012.

Miller, William J., and Brian C. Pohanka. An Illustrated History of the Civil War: Images of an American Tragedy. 2000. New York: Barnes and Noble, Inc., 2006. Print.

          Plowden, David. Lincoln and His America. New York: The Viking Press, Inc., 1970. Print.

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